The unique aspects of sponsorship systems in the Middle East, commonly known as kafala, result in a delegation of responsibility by the State to the private employer to oversee both a migrant worker’s immigration and employment status. This is inherently problematic as it creates an imbalance between the rights and abilities of workers and employers to terminate an employment relationship, and be mobile on the labour market in the respective country. This paper argues that reforming the sponsorship systems in a way which disassociates a worker’s immigration status from their employer’s control, and enables a migrant worker to resign or terminate his/ her employment contract by giving reasonable notice and without losing valid immigration status, can have significant economic, social and administrative benefits. Furthermore it may contribute to progress towards nationalization programmes, the smooth functioning of the labour market, and adherence to the rule of law.

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The Role of Recruitment Fees and Abusive and Fraudulent Recruitment Practices of Recruitment Agencies in Trafficking in Persons
Publications

The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship between recruitment fees and other abusive and fraudulent practices of recruitment agencies and trafficking in persons, with a particular focus on criminal justice measures to address this relat...Read More

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Written by Mohamed Daghar. In September 2014 Kenya banned the exportation of labour to the Middle East because workers were being trafficked by criminal networks offering them jobs. This policy brief focuses on the criminals who continue to driv...Read More

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Marks & Spencer (M&S) sets itself high standards. Its Plan A was widely recognized as breaking new ground in sustainability reporting when it was launched in 2016. In addition, M&S has achieved high rankings on human rights indices and, ...Read More

Race, Ethnicity and Belonging
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Edited by Joel Quirk and Julia O’Connell Davidson. This is the sixth volume of the series Beyond Trafficking and Slavery Short Course. Slavery cannot be reduced to a chapter in history that is now closed, but must instead be regarded as a c...Read More