Manufacturing refers to the fabrication, processing, preparation and production of goods in which raw materials are transformed into finished products. This includes machines, equipment like household appliances, office supplies and furniture, chemicals, textiles and foods.
Manufacturing is a major source of employment around the world thus multiple cases of human trafficking and forced labour can be found in this industry. Workers may face hazardous working conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures and hazardous chemicals, low wages and use of dangerous machinery. In the electronics and electrical goods manufacturing industry both internal and international migrants, make up a significant proportion of the workforce in many countries. Recruitment agents and labor contractors are heavily involved in the supply of labor to this sector which increases workers’ risk of being trafficked. Workers are often misled by recruiters about the jobs they will be placed in, including the nature of the work and the wages they will be paid, but also sometimes about the company they will be working for, or the region they will be working in. Debt bondage is also frequently correlated with recruitment in this sector, a consequence of workers borrowing to pay fees to recruiters to place them in their jobs, which given the low wages, the workers have difficulty paying off.

World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2023
16 January 2023

This year’s World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends provides a comprehensive assessment of current decent work deficits and how these have been exacerbated by multiple, overlapping crises in recent years. It analyses global patterns, regional differences and outcomes across groups...

DataJam Pasos Libres Online 2021
News & AnalysisGuidancePublicationsEvents
12 August 2021

Pasos Libres, the Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime, the Responsible and Ethical Private Sector Coalition against Trafficking (RESPECT), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and partners invite you to participate in the DataJam Pasos Libres Online 2021, a technological innovation competition that seeks to develop data-based...

The Five Corridors Project: Exploring Regulatory and Enforcement Mechanisms and their relationship with Fair Recruitment
02 July 2021

More and more people are migrating for work each year, making a vital contribution to the societies and economies that host them. Yet researchers continue to document an array of abusive practices that occur systematically in the recruitment of migrant...

Modern Slavery Act: Five Years of Reporting
01 February 2021

The UK Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Act) was established nearly six years ago and was hailed as a landmark piece of legislation. Its aim was to encourage business to take action to eradicate modern slavery from its operations and supply...

Stacked Odds – How Lifelong Inequity Shapes Women and Girls’ Experience of Modern Slavery
11 October 2020

One in every 130 females globally is living in modern slavery. In fact, women and girls account for nearly three quarters (71 per cent) of all victims of modern slavery. Although modern slavery affects everyone, there is no escaping the...

No Worker Left Behind: Protecting Vulnerable Workers from Exploitation During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic
COVID-19 resourcesPublications
01 April 2020

This briefing builds on the understanding that labour exploitation is part of a spectrum ranging from labour compliance through to labour law violations, culminating at extreme exploitation in the form of forced labour. Research by FLEX and others shows that...

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