Manufacturing refers to the fabrication, processing, preparation and production of goods in which raw materials are transformed into finished products. This includes machines, equipment like household appliances, office supplies and furniture, chemicals, textiles and foods.
Manufacturing is a major source of employment around the world thus multiple cases of human trafficking and forced labour can be found in this industry. Workers may face hazardous working conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures and hazardous chemicals, low wages and use of dangerous machinery. In the electronics and electrical goods manufacturing industry both internal and international migrants, make up a significant proportion of the workforce in many countries. Recruitment agents and labor contractors are heavily involved in the supply of labor to this sector which increases workers’ risk of being trafficked. Workers are often misled by recruiters about the jobs they will be placed in, including the nature of the work and the wages they will be paid, but also sometimes about the company they will be working for, or the region they will be working in. Debt bondage is also frequently correlated with recruitment in this sector, a consequence of workers borrowing to pay fees to recruiters to place them in their jobs, which given the low wages, the workers have difficulty paying off.

No Worker Left Behind: Protecting Vulnerable Workers from Exploitation During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic
01 April 2020

This briefing builds on the understanding that labour exploitation is part of a spectrum ranging from labour compliance through to labour law violations, culminating at extreme exploitation in the form of forced labour. Research by FLEX and others shows that...

The Dark Side of the Glittering World A report on exploitation in Toy Factories in China
20 November 2019

From the late 1970’s, China’s economy has enjoyed 30 years of explosive growth. With its 1.4 billion inhabitants, it is now the world’s largest economy. This economic miracle, now on everyone’s lips, has lifted hundreds of millions of Chinese out...

Supplier Responsibility
Good PracticesPublications
01 January 2019

This 2019 Annual Progress Report outlines Apple’s efforts in 2018.

The 2018 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
20 September 2018

Purpose of this Report The U.S. Department of Labor (USDOL) has produced this eighth edition of the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor in accordance with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPRA), as amended. The TVPRA...

Vietnam Private Sector Assessment – A Preliminary Scoping Study
02 June 2018

The primary objective of the study is to provide a broadbased overview of the private sector in Vietnam as a stakeholder in combating modern slavery in the country. The following secondary objectives specify the details of the data that need...

UK Modern Slavery Helpline: Annual Assessment 2017
16 April 2018

The UK-wide Modern Slavery Helpline and Resource Centre was established in October 2016 to provide victims, the public, statutory agencies and businesses with access to information and support on a 24/7 basis. Operated by Unseen, in its first full year...

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